Posts Tagged ‘renewable energy’


Technology and Words Changing First Nations – Right or Wrong?


I was offered the opportunity to participate in an Ontario Power Authority initiative  – Giibimidowing Gidakiiminaan – Keeping, Respecting & Caring For Our Land Treaty #3 Conference – August 21 – 23, 2012 in Kenora, Ontario at which I jumped readily.  It was my opportunity to motivate, encourage & talk about possibilities – in renewables, but even beyond.

My dealings with First Nations, in the past, have taught me that I am but a stranger, an outsider to them.  How would I know anything about who they are or how they live?  Perception & reality are significantly different in my books.  However, I always make it a point to speak from the heart and this opportunity was no exception.

So off I flew to Thunder Bay where I met some of the other speakers and together we set off by car to Kenora, Ontario.

Trees, grass, water.  Clean air. True blue skies.  Not like the haze many have grown to become accustomed to in the Greater Toronto Area.

Sunset in Kenora, Ontario – beautiful, priceless

However, this area is not without its environmental – economical – technological – societal problems, quite the contrary.  Another type of unhealthy haze has been inflicted, and it is one that separates us huge concentration of southerners from the realities & truths of those living in the true north (which people in Kenora laugh and say they consider themselves in the south of the the north!).

Kenora, Ontario, some 5 hours drive from Thunder Bay – 3 hours drive from Winnipeg, Manitoba, lies in Treaty #3 First Nations area.  Unfamiliar with Treaty #3 and its’ important historical significance in Canada?

“Treaty 3 was an agreement entered into on October 3, 1873, by the Ojibway Nation and Queen Victoria. The treaty ceded a vast tract of Ojibway territory, including large parts of what is now northwestern Ontario and a small part of eastern Manitoba, to the Government of Canada. Treaty 3 also provided for rights for the Métis and other Ojibway, through a series of adhesions signed over the next year.

It was the third in a series of eleven numbered treaties between the Crown and North American First Nations. Despite being the third of these treaties it is in fact more historically significant in that its text and terms served as the model for the remainder of the numbered treaties. Treaties 1 and 2 covered an area about the same size and in fact had to be amended to reflect some of the developments arising out of the negotiation of Treaty 3. At the time that it was negotiated it was anticipated that the terms of Treaty 3 would serve as a model for future treaties and would require the amendment of Treaties 1 and 2 [Letter from Minister of the Interior Campbell to Lieutenant-Governor Morris, 5 August 1873, Public Archives of Canada (“PAC”), RG10, vol. 1904].

Treaty 3 has particular historical significance because of the litigation that ensued between the Crown in Right of Ontario and the Crown in Right of Canada over the significance of the treaty and the respective roles of Canada and the provinces in relation to aboriginal peoples. The first of these cases is the St. Catharines Milling v. The Queen [(1888), 14 App. Cas. 65 (P.C.)] which dealt with the question of the ownership of lands subject to a treaty (a question that was decided in favour of the Province). The second, A.G. (Canada) v. A.G. (Ontario), [(1910) A.C. (P.C.)], dealt with the question of whether or not Ontario had to indemnify Canada for the expenses incurred in negotiating the treaty and the ongoing costs of fulfilling the treaty obligations. Canada lost this case as well with the Supreme Court of Canada and the Privy Council holding that Canada was responsible for Indian affairs and the welfare of Indians and that the treaty had been negotiated to achieve broad national purposes (such as the building of the transcontinental railway) rather than to benefit Ontario. The significance of these decisions is still a matter of discussion in the Canadian courts.

Treaty 3 is also significant as there exists a written record of the native peoples understanding of the treaty. This is known as the Paypom document. It is a series of notes that were written for Chief Powassin during the treaty negotiations, and documents the promises that were made to the First Nations people. The promises in the Paypom document differ in a number of ways from the printed version available from the Canadian government.” – wikipedia

As a result, First Nations has no trust in outsiders and their talk about this and about that.  Not just with this treaty, but with a number of ‘agreements’ and/or ‘contracts’ and/or ‘initiatives’, many First Nations takes the stance that others don’t live up to their end of the ‘bargains’.  This is not to say there are no First Nations people who develop trust or ally themselves with others, however, they do with much caution.  In either case, I don’t blame them.

Making a long story short, I spoke my presentation from the heart and managed to connect with many, like Willy – a 74 year old elder, who has been attending all kinds of meetings and gatherings about the community, “… since 1981.” he said.

“I’m not afraid of progress. But.  There is a right way and a wrong way of doing it.” he almost whispered at me, as his aged wise eyes looked at me, the breeze blowing about his straw coloured, long hair.

Willy, an Elder from Treaty #3 has been attending community meetings since 1981.

First Nations Treaty #3 has a number of issues that are affecting their communities, and in no small manner.

3 hydro electric dams stand at the centre of much controversy.  First Nations describe how the frogs have disappeared.  No longer do the sturgeon grow.  In September of 2011, Grand Council Treaty #3 filed an application for judicial review. Respondents are the Province of Ontario as represented by the Ontario Ministry of Energy and the Ontario Power Authority (OPA).  The main issue at the centre of this review is the Respondents failure to perform their “duty to consult” in good faith with First Nations.

“… the Ontario Energy Minister’s direction to the OPA to develop the Hydroelectric Contract Initiative (HCI) without Aboriginal consultation. In question is the OPA’s development and implementation of the  HCI, the decision by OPA to enter into an HCI contract for existing hydroelectric generating facilities (Calm Lake, Sturgeon Falls, Fort Frances, Kenora, and Norman) in Treaty 3 territory with ACH Limited Partnership (ACH). As of May 2011, these dams are owned by Calgary based BluEarth Renewables Inc.” – GCT3  (Please read here for full text)

Sounds as though, once again, people are not living up to their ends of ‘bargains’ … and so the cycle continues.

How about the proposed ‘solution’ of dumping toxic nuclear waste into the communities up there?  (Click here for full text of story.)  Nuclear Waste Management was on the agenda for the discussions as well.  Their displays, which likely cost thousands and thousands of dollars, took a whole day to put up, I watched it.  They were complicated, showed large pictures of business people and were overwhelming, even for me.

In no way is this an effective way of communicating to First Nations … and again, the cycle continues.

There’s more.

In December of 2011, Treaty #3 launched an education lawsuit against the federal government – the reason? ” … a breach of their treaty right to education.”

Inexperienced teachers & disintegrating schools.  Yes, it’s real and not fixed, even if Mike Holmes has drawn attention to the appalling living conditions, as he did in his December 2011 CBC article entitled, “Stop building junk on reserves.”

And if that doesn’t get you, let’s just go deeper down the rabbit hole and talk about how shocking Pikangikum truly is.

If you have never heard of this place, you need to.

In 2000, this First Nation was given the horrible and terribly sad title of, “Highest Suicide Rate in the WORLD” (I used wikipedia as a reference, but that info is not complete & certainly paints a picture leaning toward female inhalant abuse. It’s way more than that, affecting all.)  And, it hasn’t stopped.

In fact, this area is especially worse than ever.

I met a local from the area who shall remain nameless, due to the sensitivity of this information.

In March of 2012, MacLean’s published a story called, “Living and dying in Pikangikum.”  While it does speak to the horrors of life up in the area, it surely isn’t giving up the whole picture.

Picture a home, barely a structure, empty. No beds, no appliances, nothing.  A First Nations woman, standing in the middle of it, with utter desperation in her eyes.

Where to get another $500.00 together for just one more tab of Oxycontin.

Yes, comfortable ladies and gentlemen, reading this online, having encountered this sad article somehow through the internet because you are able to.

One tab of Oxy goes for $500.00, usually split into 4 – so 1/4 tab per person at $125.00.

How about a mickey?  A mickey of alcohol is $250.00.

Who controls all this?  I won’t write it out loud, but they surely are not angels.

We should all be ashamed of ourselves, allowing such injustices to continue to First Nations.  In fact, one of the Elders, a ‘Grandma’ said,

“First it was smallpox.  Now this.  Why not just give them smallpox and be done with it.”

It is not right to have our eyes shut for us to this, or for us to shut our eyes to it ourselves.

So, if you didn’t know about all this, dig deep.

Go even deeper and talk to First Nations.  What?  You can’t or don’t know how to? That’s bull. Keeping us separate is an excellent way to keep the cycle of abuse going.  I have and no, I don’t always believe everything … whether it’s from the government or from First Nations.  But I have observed this now myself having been there and there is no denying that while technology can most definitely be used to improve the quality of all of our lives, it has also become apparent that it can also create great problems that cannot be swept under the rug: it’s as simple as having the power to transport in drugs and alcohol to remote locations and turn viable people into zombies walking around ghost towns, as some really evil people are capitalizing on the genocide of a people.

But don’t believe me.  As I said, go find out for yourself.  And if you do not find this sad, shocking, angering, then perhaps all is lost and we live in a soul-less, money loving people filled country.

I hope that some of you reading this can connect even more dots in between with the mind-bending and twisted way some of our communities are merely being given perceptions, words & stories that makes the “jobs & prosperity” buzz over resources & technologies sound so great.

If we have such wonderful communication technologies, how come we seem to have difficulty in communicating, educating, negotiating & consulting with First Nations?  If guns kill people, spoons are making Harper fat.

It is also my hope that heartfull, responsible people will step-up and champion the introduction of new ways that are right, to the benefit of our communities and the children of our future.

But what do I know?

OPA Conference for Treaty #3 – Youth & Elders Forum


Video from Green Flight Challenge, Full Scale Electric Power Aircraft Competition


See the amazing aircraft of the Green Flight Challenge (GFC) from the Google Green Flight Challenge Exposition hosted by NASA at Moffett Field held Monday October 3, 2011. The event showcased the latest in personal aircraft innovation and featured advanced vehicle demonstrations.

Day 2: Green Flight Challenge

Info on Green Flight Challenge

Cutting-edge technology companies exhibited close by to the aircraft. Products and technologies were demonstrated and displayed (advanced vehicles and innovations).  Some of the exhibitors:

  • Verticopter – Personal VTOL
  • D-STAR Engineering – Electric Motor featuring 8kw/kg
  • Sinhatech – Laminar Flow
  • Motor Excellence – Motors
  • GSE – Bio-Fuel Engines
  • Kleenspeed – Car and Aero Technolgies
  • JoBy Energy – Electric VTOL
  • A.I.R. Inc. – Motor Controllers
  • Google – Autonomous Automobile
  • NASA – The Future of Aeronautics
  • CAFE – GFC Flight Testing
  • Extreme Capacitor, Inc. – Ultra-Capacitors, X-CapTM
  • Alternair – Electric Aircraft
  • Catto Props – Quiet Propellers
  • Sentry View Systems – Data Acquisition
  • Wrightspeed – Electric Drivetrains
  • Synergy – Synergy aircraft
  • Aerovel – Flexrotor UAV
  • IKE Aerospace – Seraph Aircraft
  • Brammo Inc – Electric Motorcycle
  • Matternet – UAV Last-Mile Solutions

Japan Legal Action Against Ontario Green Energy Act “Concern” for WTO – International Institute Sustainable Development


IISD convenes meeting at WTO – international trade/investment laws

GENEVA—October 11, 2011—The International Institute for Sustainable Development has convened a one-day meeting of specialists from the climate change and the international trade law communities aimed at developing a better framework to address unilateral trade-related action on climate change, at the World Trade Organization headquarters in Geneva on Thursday.

“Several high profile measures have already sparked legal challenges in the WTO, a clear sign of things to come,” said IISD senior advisor and associate Aaron Cosbey.

The most prominent case is the action Japan has brought against Canada over Ontario’s Green Energy Act, which provides preferential incentives to green energy (solar and wind), but only if it uses components manufactured by local manufacturers. If Japan succeeds, it could mean lost jobs and a roadblock to Ontario’s ambitions to be a clean energy exporter.

“This is a major concern to all members of the WTO, as the uncertainty has stalled critical and urgent investments in clean energy infrastructure and other climate change-related investments,” said Cosbey.

Despite the urgency, Cosbey said it will still take years to establish a framework to deal with the complex issues. “This meeting is just the beginning, but the issues are so important we expect a lively and productive discussion at the very least.”

He said the aim is to foster greater international cooperation in an effort to keep investment flowing in the direction of initiatives that help countries develop the infrastructure needed for climate change adaptations and mitigation.

The meeting will also look at issues around border carbon adjustment, which pose serious challenges for international cooperation on trade and investment, as well as in the ongoing climate change negotiations.

Please see the agenda for a full list of presenters at the conference: Trade, Investment and Climate Change: Searching for Progress on Key Issues,on October 13, 2011.

source: IISD


World’s Largest Green Building Conference & Expo in Toronto October 4 – 7


[from Author: I will be at the Green Building Expo. I have signed up for many educational sessions with some amazing speakers, but I think I am most looking forward to the discussion I get to attend with Steve Zornetzer Associate Director for Research – NASA HQ! Please connect with me via Twitter & perhaps we will see eachother there! Profile: TheVillageGreen]

Greenbuild’s economic impact on local economy an expected $26 million CAD with 25,000 delegates

TORONTO, Sept. 28, 2011 /CNW/ — The U.S. Green Building Council’s (USGBC) annual conference and expo is making its way to Toronto next week to celebrate “what’s next” in green building. Greenbuild is the world’s largest green building conference and expo and is expected to make an economic impact of $26 million CAD, bringing 25,000 delegates from over 115 countries to the event. A release from the Metro Toronto Convention Centre earlier this week also stated that Greenbuild will generate a positive impact on the local economy of over $58 million from delegate spending.

Toronto was selected by USGBC as the host city for the conference for several reasons, including its growth in the green building movement with nearly 300 building projects registered and seeking LEED certification and 44 green building projects already LEED-certified in the Toronto area.

“Toronto and the Canada Green Building Council (CaGBC) have been a tremendous force in the recent growth of the green building movement in Canada,” said Rick Fedrizzi, President, CEO and Founding Chair, USGBC. “Toronto’s building market has continued to boom and prosper and it’s the perfect backdrop for the 10th anniversary of Greenbuild.”

Held in conjunction with the Canada Green Building Council, Greenbuild promises to inspire and educate with hundreds of educational sessions; dozens of master speakers; one and two day summits focused on green jobs, residential and affordable green building, and the international green building marketplace; more than 1,000 companies showcasing the most innovative green building products and services in the world’s largest expo hall dedicated to green building; and top-notch plenary speakers that include New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman, former Prime Minister of Canada Kim Campbell, ABC News political commentator Cokie Roberts, medical anthropologist and physician Dr. Paul Farmer and New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg. The opening plenary event will also feature Grammy award-winning band, Maroon 5.

“It’s appropriate that the first Greenbuild outside of the United States is being held in Canada because it demonstrates the huge impact LEED, and the close partnership between the USGBC and CaGBC, have had on green building in Canada,” said Thomas Mueller, President and CEO, CaGBC. “There is no doubt that Greenbuild will be a game changer for Toronto and for Canada by taking green building to the next level in terms of industry and government recognition and international trade.”

About U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) The U.S. Green Building Council is committed to a prosperous and sustainable future for our nation through cost-efficient and energy-saving green buildings. With a community comprising 79 local affiliates, nearly 16,000 member organizations, and more than 168,000 LEED Professional Credential holders, USGBC is the driving force of an industry that is projected to contribute $554 billion to the U.S. GDP from 2009-2013. USGBC leads an unlikely diverse constituency of builders and environmentalists, corporations and nonprofit organizations, elected officials and concerned citizens, and teachers and students. For more information, visit, Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn.

About Greenbuild The U.S. Green Building Council’s Greenbuild International Conference & Expo convenes the industry’s largest gathering of representatives from all sectors of the green building movement. Three days of extensive educational programming, workshops, a vast exhibition floor and ample networking events provide unrivaled opportunities to learn about the latest technological innovations, explore new products, and exchange ideas with other professionals. Greenbuild is the three time recipient of IMEX Green Meetings Award and the 2011 show will be held on Oct. 4-7, 2011, in Toronto, Canada. This past year’s conference in Chicago, Ill. drew more than 28,000 attendees and featured more than 1,800 exhibit booths. Visit for more information.


Sustainability in Canada 101 – Part 1



You may already be familiar with the terms ‘sustainability’, ‘sustainable’ & ‘sustainable development’ and if not, it is important to become familiar with them now. These words are becoming some of the most important buzz words you have ever heard. And it is very important to note at all times that technology & science are walking hand in hand with sustainability.

Definitions Under the Federal Sustainable Development Act of Canada

  • “sustainability”“sustainability” means the capacity of a thing, action, activity, or process to be maintained indefinitely.
  • “sustainable development”“sustainable development” means development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

The FSDA was implemented in 2008. There are many reasons why this Act came into law, including Agenda 21 & the United Nations and the North American Free Trade Agreement. along with the entire ideology & desire of saving the environment.

Why is this Important?

“Sustainable development is about meeting the needs of today without compromising the needs of future generations. It is about improving standard of living by protecting human health, conserving the environment, using resources efficiently and advancing long-term economic competitiveness. It requires the integration of environmental, economic and social priorities into policies and programs and requires action at all levels – citizens, industry, and governments.”

The FSDA is guided by the “precautionary principle”:

means the principle that where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation

In a nutshell, the sustainable development model is designed to change the way we perform our activites, in our working & everyday lives.  We have clearly seen some of these goals introduced into our society which really started with the basic concept of recycling.  Now we are into the information technology & renewable, sustainable & clean tech energy age.

Our working lives are as important to us as are our everyday lives.  Right now, businesses, companies, plans, designs, infrastructure, you name it, are all adapting the sustainable development model.  Much of the concepts in this model revolve around technologies and how their uses “protect & enhance” our environment.

Our work, functions, tasks, duties, responsibilities are and will be affected by sustainable development.  It is here that it is important to think about what the possibilities could be in the near future & even later, so that whatever regulations, laws & expectations & technological economies according to the sustainable development model are introduced, our working lives are also able to “protect & enhance”.  This does require considering expanding our personal skill levels & knowledge.

Everything is being and will eventually be evaluated for ‘sustainability’.

sustainable future

I Want to Know More About Sustainable Development.

As we have seen in Canada in places like B.C. & especially in Ontario, with its Green Energy & Economy Act, the use of energy producing technolgies has increased massively. A focus has been placed on solar, wind, water & biotechnologies, but it does not stop there.  Infrastructure around us is being redesigned & recreated, and as the bridges, roads, electrical grids etc. change, it’s all based on technology that for now, we are calling “environmentally friendly”, “renewable”, “cleantech”.  It’s all really part of sustainability.

The best way to start is at the beginning. Becoming familiar with documents such as Agenda 21 & the North American Free Trade Agreement will help but be warned, they are long! Understanding Ontario’s Green Energy & Economy Act is a great benefit because this is law and we must be responsible enough to understand it so that we may best move forward.

Becoming familiar with the Ontario Power Authority’s website is also important for a number of reasons.  The OPA shapes the way energy looks in Ontario by creating plans & goals for energy & influences the energy laws that can & do change the way we act in our lives, working & personal.  All of the rules & applications for the Feed-In-Tariff (& MicroFIT) & Standard Offer Program are there as well.

In Part 2 of Sustainability in Canada 101, we’ll explore what the “precautionary principle” means. Or at least try to. I am always open to learning more, so if I’m not getting it, I hope one of my knowledgeable readers might intervene with good info.

And do some homework, because it will help you to understand. Sort of.

But what do I know?


100 Years Ago: Media, Climate Change & Electricity


How our earth has always and how it ‘lives’ in its own natural processes is something I cannot help pondering as I read this Washington Post article published in 1922.  Apparently the Arctic had “a radical change in climatic condition and hitherto un-heard-of high temperatures in that part of the earth’s surface.” The seals were disappearing, fish disappeared (although others seemed to replace them), flora & fauna dramatically changed.

I am reading practically the same today, almost 100 years later.  Nunavut, a territory of Canada, seems to have changed its flora & fauna now as well, as discussed in this article from CBC, July 11, 2011 => “Exotic Species Comes North to Nunavut” which to me, indicates insects are adapting as well as plants to earth changes.  As has similarly happened in all earth’s past history.


I am not saying that humans are NOT responsible for climate change, however, it may not be exactly the way we think it is.  I was amazed to see this headline pop up, which is clearly indicative of people in power playing with climate change on a global scale almost one hundred years ago:

Man Deliberately Wants to Change Nature

And if that doesn’t grab you, how about experiments on children with high frequency electrical currents way back in 1912, with an introduction that praises how these children will improve mentally and physically.

High Frequency Electrical Currents to Improve Children Mentally & Physically

There are other countless articles that show how solar power, wind power, electromagnetic energy (thanks to little know GENIUS Tesla), fuelless engines (the Hendershot)  and other technologies were either lost, disrespected by patent offices or other.  That there have been many experiments on humans, climate & so much more.  The underlying feeling of these old writings demonstrates an eerily similar feeling to many articles of today. Only these have rebranded, renamed, regurgitated, regenerated to suit our present times.

It is my real belief that the technology we are permitted to use & see is well behind that what really exists in our world. Corporations & profit mongers in business & banking look for the bottom line, period.  JP Morgan took his funding away from Tesla because Tesla wanted free wireless energy for everyone. There was no profit in that during their period of time.  No profit off sun or wind. But wires made profit, coal, oil, gas …

There now exist solar, wind & other old technologies made new – along with a slew of political & economic policies across the world that have been geared for what is always the bottom line – profit.

It is my hope that the real people of the world, the ones who struggle, who work everyday just to make ends meet (90% of the population) might take the time to discover & educate themselves about the real possibilities of a cleaner world that serves the better interest of the global community as opposed to the self-serving interests of ‘greenwashing’ corporations, politicians, governments and the maddeningly manipulative & exploiting media.

But what do I know?


Guilty as Charged – Endangerment, Extirpation & Extinction in Canada.


April 28th was Canada’s National Day of Mourning for those workers killed on their jobs.  Their deaths, the reasons for them and the realizations we have learned as a result should never be forgotten.  We should also mourn for the loss and the mismangement of our natural resources here as well.


Dawson or Woodland Caribou, gone.

So today, I am also mourning for that substantial loss.

We need to learn to take responsibility for our past actions – we are guilty of participating in and assisting in the endangerment, extirpation and extinction of our natural resources here in Canada.

In starting to participate in a ‘green’ lifestyle, changing my ways of thinking, acting and making a conscientious effort to be more aware of the effects my actions, my realizations have actually forced me to ask questions & learn.

I discovered the Species at Risk Public Registry – run by the Government of Canada.  And what I saw made me sad today.

I will never see:

  • passenger pigeons darkening the sky RIP 1914
  • Reasons for extinction
    ” … greatly reduced by market hunting … ” – sararegistry


  •  a blue walleye swimming in a lake in Ontario RIP 1965
  • Reasons for extinction
    “Overfishing was the main factor which led to the extinction of this species.” – sararegistry


  • deep water ciscoe in Lake Michigan or Lake Huron RIP ?
  • Reasons for extinction
    “Commercial exploitation …” – sararegistry


  •  Macoun’s Shining Moss – never seen alive since RIP 1864
  •  Reasons for extinction – sararegistry
    “The land where the original population was located was cleared between 1864 and 1892, suggesting that habitat loss accounts for the elimination of the only known population.”


  • the fins of a Lake Ontario Kiyi RIP 1974
  • Reasons for extinction
    “Commercial overfishing of Kiyi was likely the cause of its decline in lakes Huron, Michigan and Ontario.” – sararegistry



The Great Auk sadly is extinct.

I’ll also never see the Sea Mink RIP 1894, the Labrador Duck RIP 1878, the Eelgrass Limpet RIP 1929, the Dawson Caribou RIP 1930s, the Banff Longnoose Dace RIP 2000, the Benthic & Limnetic Hadley Lake Stikleback RIP 1980s, or the Great Auk RIP 1844 – see extinction list sararegistry.

The Species at Risk Registry also has an extensive list of extirpated and endangered species, as well as documentation to recovery strategies.

According to many of these documents, we are guilty in the past and the present of putting all our natural resources in danger.  Let’s make a change to protect Earth, repair it and make it safe for all by executing the right steps for the future.  Education and awareness are imperative now, make sure to get the news out.

Making a coordinated & community oriented effort to clean up our country is urgent.  Changing the way we live, eat, work has to be parallelled with a re-motivation of trust and care with eachother.  Using clean, renewable, sustainable power in a responsible and conscienscious manner because it will help to save our Earth can be coupled with making a living from it.

For further information on Community Power and its possibilities, please visit the Ontario Sustainable Energy Association’s website at

Guilt tripping and restling with your conscience is good I say. 

But what do I know?

Peace 🙂

%d bloggers like this: